Online Journal of African Affairs

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Online Journal of African Affairs (ISSN 2346-7479) is an open access, double blind peer-reviewed, international, multidisciplinary journal that provides rapid continuous publication of academic articles in all areas of African studies with relation to politics, heritage studies and management, archaeology, musicology, landscape and environment, traditional knowledge system, anthropology and ancient history, literature, arts, cultural and social studies, history, economic and security matters, international affairs with linkage to immediate regions, colonization, ethnicity, regionalization, media, religion, races and racism, education, military, growth and development, health and medical issues peculiar to Africans, issues relating to ECOWAS, SADC, etc. Generally, OJAA covers all fields of studies such as; Social sciences, Law, Education, Arts, Humanities, Agricultural sciences, Biodiversity, Biological (Life) sciences, Physical sciences, Engineering and Technology, as well as Medicine, Medical sciences, Environmental sciences, etc that relates to Africans and Africa


OJAA is founded to publish proposals, appraisals and reports of African Affairs. The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers would be published within 72 hours of acceptance after thorough peer evaluation by the editorial board. All articles are peer-reviewed. Papers submitted must be with the understanding that they have not been published and are not currently under consideration.


The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the article's publication has been approved by all the coauthors. Further correspondence and proofs will be sent to the corresponding author before publication unless otherwise indicated.


Electronic submission of manuscripts is strongly encouraged, provided that the text, tables, and figures are included in a single Microsoft Word file (preferably in Arial font, font size 12 and double line spacing).


Submit manuscripts as e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at: submit.ojaa@onlineresearchjournals.org or ojaa.onlineresearch@gmail.com.  We will acknowledge receipt of the manuscript and send a manuscript number to the corresponding author within 48 hours of receipt of the manuscript.

The cover letter should include the corresponding author's full names, academic title, affiliation and telephone/fax numbers and should be in an e-mail message sent to the Editor, with the file, whose name should begin with the corresponding author's surname, as an attachment.


Structure of Article

Articles should begin with an Abstract which should not be more than 250 words, indicating the major argument of the article and its significance as an addition to existing knowledge or analysis.

Keywords: A minimum of five (5) keywords that will provide indexing to the references should be stated.


After the abstract should be the INTRODUCTION which should ordinarily provide a clear statement of the issue.


There is no standard format, however, here are some questions you might think about as you write your article:

What is this article about? In what way is it original? On what kind of research is it based? Why is it important to contemporary observers? Who is it going to interest? How will the argument of the article unfold?
Then you have to decide on a structure for your article.


There are various possibilities, however, here are some examples:

The chronological structure: The article takes the form of a description of a historical process or period, with analytical insights along the way. The structure unfurls like a series of events in time.

The comparative case-study structure: The author identifies a phenomenon of general interest, describes the way in which the phenomenon has been discussed in the academic literature, and then explores it further through presenting a case study or studies.

The thematic structure: The author identifies a phenomenon of general interest or concern, and then explores the phenomenon in a variety of different manifestations.

The keyhole structure: The author looks into a small scale process in order to gain a perspective on a wider social landscape.

The funnel structure: The article begins with a wide focus which then narrows to a specific point, event or process. (In some ways this is a reverse of the keyhole structure).

Other types of structure, and combinations of the various types, are certainly possible. The important thing is to choose a structure that fits your argument, and that will be easy for the reader to follow.

It is common also to add a conclusion, which picks up the various threads of the argument and pulls out their wider, analytical significance. A final tip: articles often require some brief historical background. If this does not come in the introduction itself, it often makes sense to put it immediately after the introduction.

Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc should be brief.


Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text. Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word and the exact positions of each table should be cited in the body of the article (table 1).

Figure legends 
should be typed in numerical order. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or PowerPoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.



In-text citations should follow the APA format and it is advice that references should not be more than ten (10) years old. Ensure that the author's last name and the year of publication in bracket are used in the in-text citation. See example; McLaren (2008) defined antigens as..... When the authors are two (2), the reference should be cited as McLaren and Kamsi (2014) defined antigens as..... If the authors are more than two (2), then the name of the first author and et al. should be used. E.g McLaren et al. (2015) have reported the presence of H.pylori antigens in the glomerulu of membranous patients. Within a paragraph, you need not include the year in subsequent references. E.g Smith (2002) compared reaction times. Smith also found that... The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. corporations, associations, government agencies, and study groups) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. If it will not cause confusion for the reader, names may be abbreviated thereafter: First citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999). Subsequent citations: (NIMH, 1999). To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table or equation at the appropriate point in the text: (Abdo & Sheeba, 2014, p. 10); (Williams, 1984, Chapter 3). When citing a work which is discussed in another work, include the original author's name in an explanatory sentence, and then include the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your reference list. E.g Smith argued that...(as cited in Andrews, 2011).


Cited references should be listed under the heading REFERENCES in their alphabetical order. For further guidance, see below;




Bujard H, Peschke U, Beuk V, Gentz R,  Le Grice  S (1985). Efficient utilization of Escherichia coli transcriptional signals in Bacillus subtilis. J Mol Biol, 186: 175-182.


Farrant JM, Mundree SG (2002). Some physiological and molecular insights into the mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscasa Baker.  In Cherry et al. (eds) Plant tolerance to abiotic stresses in Agriculture: Role of Genetic Engineering, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 201-222.


Hirschl AM (1994). Helicobacter pylori: pathogens, pathomechanisms and epidemiology. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 106(17): 538-42.


Kanbay M, Kasapoglu B, Turgut F, Uz E, Bavbek N, Akcay A (2007). Helicobacter pylori: a major risk factor for endothelial dysfunction? Med Hypotheses. 69(1): 227-228.


Sugimoto T, Furukawa T, Maeda T, Somura M, Uzu T, Kashiwagi A (2013). Marked reduction of proteinuria after eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection in a patient with membranous nephropathy: coincidental or associated? Intern Med, 46(17): 1483-1484.


Proofs and Reprints: Electronic proofs will be sent (e-mail attachment) to the corresponding author as a PDF file.  Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. With the exception of typographical or minor clerical errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage.  Because OJAA will be published freely online to attract a wide audience, authors will have free electronic access to the full text (in both HTML and PDF) of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles.


Fees and Charges: Publication of an article in OJAA is not contingent upon the author's ability to pay the charges. Neither is acceptance to pay the handling fee a guarantee that the paper will be accepted for publication. Authors that may not be able to pay the $400, can request that the editorial office reduce the fee to an amount that the author can afford to pay. We only accept payment of handling fee after manuscript has been accepted for publication. The handling fee is used for the smooth operation of the journal. As an open access journal, OJAA does not charge subscription fees to authors and researchers for viewing or downloading published articles. To successfully provide open access, OJAA use a model in which our expenses—including those of peer review, journal production, employees salary, water bills, online advertising of published articles (through our publication alert services), electricity bills, expenses on purchasing diesel for plant, tax and online hosting and archiving—are recovered in part through the publication fee.



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